Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.
Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ...? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.
However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ...The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.
The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, ..., more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.
21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.
A. will ease train operators’ burden
B. has kept pace with inflation
C. is a big surprise to commuters
D. remains an unreasonable measure
22. The stockbroker in Paragraph 2 is used to stand for ______.
A. car drivers
B. rail travellers
C. local investors
D. ordinary taxpayers
23. It is indicated in Paragraph 3 that train operators ______.
A. are offering compensation to commuters
B. are trying to repair relations with the unions
C. have failed to provide an adequate service
D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes
24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face ______.
A. the loss of investment
B. the collapse of operations
C. a reduction of revenue
D. a change of ownership
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?
B. Constant Complaining Doesn’t Work
C. Can Nationalisation Bring Hope?
D. Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable
21. 【答案】D（remains an unreasonable measure）
【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词rail passengers fares定位到第一段①句。①句没有体现作者的观点，因此往下看一句，定位到②句：It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual ... imposing a significant extra burden on those...由grimly（冷酷地，讨厌地）和a significant extra burden（一个巨大的额外负担）可知，作者对铁路乘客车费上涨的态度是负面的。再根据题干关键词this year’s increase定位到第一段③句：This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.（今年平均2.7%的上涨，也许比去年的上涨稍微低一些，但是它仍然远远高于官方消费者物价指数衡量的通货膨胀程度）。由此进一步确定车费上涨是unreasonable（不合理的）。所以本题选D。
22. 【答案】B（rail travellers）
【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词stockbroker定位到例子所在句，即第二段②句：Why ... should a car-driving pensioner ... have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker...?（为什么一个开车的养老金领取者必须要补贴一个股票经纪人的日常通勤呢？）再找到前面的论点句：Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer（历届政府允许这种上涨，因为投资和运营铁路网的成本应该由使用它的人们来承担，而不是一般纳税人）。这段论述认为，没有使用铁路网的一般纳税人如开车的养老金领取者不应该承担铁路网成本，使用铁路网的人如股票经纪人才应该承担此成本。定位句中的stockbroker指的就是论点句中的those who use it。所以本题选B。
23. 【答案】C（have failed to provide an adequate service）
【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词train operators定位到第三段②句：It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel（火车运营商宣扬他们对铁路网作出的改进无可非议，但考虑到乘客如今为出行支付的大量费用，他们理应能够期待基本水平的服务）。可见，火车运营商没能提供合格的服务。所以本题选C。
24. 【答案】D（a change of ownership）
【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词If unable to calm down passengers定位到第四段④句：The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order（国有化的威胁也许暂时可以避免，但是，如果乘客的正当愤怒不能被立即解决，这种威胁会卷土重来）。If unable to calm down passengers是if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order的同义表达。可见，如果铁路公司不能让乘客镇静下来，铁路公司将会面临国有化的威胁，即所有权的变更。所以本题选D。
25. 【答案】D（Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable）
【解析】本题为主旨大意题。文章首段提出铁路乘客车费再次上涨的问题，即文章讨论的主题；二段简单阐述历届政府允许车费上涨的理由；三至四段聚焦于乘客所付车费和享受到的服务不对等的问题，作者认为乘客应该受到补偿，英国铁路服务标准必须得到保障，并指出如果服务得不到保障，乘客将不会无止境地支付更多车费。D项中的Ever-Rising Fares（不断上涨的车费）是文章讨论的主题，Aren’t Sustainable（是不可持续的）是作者的观点。D项完整地概括了全文内容。所以本题选D。